His Birth and
The 2nd Imam
after Imam Ali(a.s.) was his son Imam Hasan(a.s.), the son of
the mistress of the women of the worlds, Bibi Fatima(s.a.),
daughter of Prophet Muhammad(pbuh&hf). Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s kunya
was Abu Muhammad. He was born in Medina, on the night of the
15th day of Ramadan, three years after the hijra (624 AD).
Hasan(a.s.) was born, the Prophet(pbuh&hf) took him and said the
adhan (call to prayer) in his right ear, and said the iqama
(words similar to the adhan) in his left ear. Then he sacrificed
a ram for him (in the ceremony of aqiqa). Then he shaved his
hair. He (i.e., the Prophet(pbuh&hf)) gave silver equal to his
hair. So the weight of Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s hair was a dirham and
some of silver. Then he ordered his hair to perfumed. So the
aqiqa and giving alms as equal as the weight of hair have become
Sunna (an act of the Prophet(pbuh&hf)).
Fatima(s.a.) brought her two sons, Imam Hasan(a.s.) and Imam
Hussain(a.s.) to the Apostle of God(pbuh&hf) at the time when he
was suffering from the sickness from which he died. "Apostle of
God," she said, "these are your two (grand) sons. Give them
something as an inheritance". "As for Hasan," he replied, "he
has my form and my nobility. As for Hussain, he has my
generosity and my bravery."
al-Sayyid, al-Zaki, al-Mujtaba, al-Taqi.
Hasan(a.s.) married Umm Ishaq bint (the daughter of) Talha b. `Ubayd
Allah, Hafsa bint (the daughter of) 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abu Bakr,
Hind bint (the daughter of) Suhayl b. `Amru, and Ju'da bint (the
daughter of ) al-Ash'ath b. Qays, whom Mu'awiya tempted to kill
Imam Hasan(a.s.). So she killed him with poison.
Hasan(a.s.) had fifteen children, both male and female: Zayd,
Imam Hasan(a.s.), `Amru, al-Qasim, `Abd Allah, `Abd al-Rahman,
Imam Hasan(a.s.) al-Athram, and Talha, Umm Imam Hasan(a.s.), Umm
al-Husayn, Fatima, Umm Salama, Ruqayya, Umm `Abd Allah, and
No one was
more like the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his
family, than Imam Hasan(a.s.) in form, manner, and nobility.
Hasan(a.s.) has been describe as : "He had a white, reddish
face. He had black eyes, smooth cheeks, thick beard, and curly,
plentiful hair. His neck was as white as a jug of silver. His
body was good. He had large shoulders, and big fleshy bones. He
was of medium height; neither long nor short. He was handsome;
the best of all people in face".
Hasan(a.s.) performed the hajj on foot twenty-five times. When
he mentioned death, he wept. When he mentioned the grave, he
wept. When he mentioned the resurrection, he wept. When he
mentioned crossing the sirat (a kind of bridge which only the
righteous can cross on the road to Paradise), he wept. When he
mentioned the standing before Allah(swt), he fainted. When he
mentioned Paradise and Fire, he shock as the sick person did. So
he asked Allah(swt) to make him enter Paradise and to protect
him from Fire.
Hasan(a.s.) performed an ablution for prayers, he shock all over
and his face became pale. He gave people from his property twice
in the way of Allah(swt). He mentioned Allah(swt) in all
conditions whether pleasant or otherwise.
historians) said: "He (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) was the best of all
people in worshipping Allah(swt) and refraining from the life in
Hasan(a.s.)'s ethics were excellent examples for people. So
everyone respected him. Everyone loved him when he associated
with him. When his friend or his enemy heard him talking or
delivering a speech, he was sorry that he (Imam Hasan(a.s.))
would end his talking or his speech.
Ishaq said: "After Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his
family, no one had a high social position as Imam Hasan(a.s.)
had. (Mats) were spread out at the door of his house. When he
came out and sat, the street was over crowded. So no one of
Allah's creatures could pass to show respect for him. When he
knew that, he stood up and entered his house. So the people
Hasan(a.s.) had a high social rank, he was kind to people. One
day he passed by poor persons. The poor persons were sitting on
the ground. There were pieces of bread before them. They were
picking up the pieces of bread and eating them. When they saw
Imam Hasan(a.s.) they said to him: "Son of the Apostle of Allah,
come to lunch!" So he dismounted his camel and said: "Indeed,
Allah does not love the proud." He began eating with them. Then
he invited them and gave them food and clothes.
are some examples of Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s generosity: A man came
to him and asked him for a need. He (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) said to
the man: "Write your need on a piece of paper and submit it to
me." The man submitted his need to him. He (Imam Hasan(a.s.))
doubled the man's need. So some of those who were sitting with
Imam Hasan(a.s.) said to him: "Son of the Apostle of Allah, the
blessing of the piece of paper was great for the man." So Imam
Hasan(a.s.) said: "Its blessing for us is greater, for Allah has
made us appropriate for doing good. Do you not know that doing
good should be optional, namely without request. As for him whom
you give after the request, you give him after he has lost face.
He may spend his night restless and sleepless. He rocks between
despair and hope. He does not know whether he will face a sad
answer or a glad success. He comes to you while he shakes all
over and his heart is afraid (of you). Then if you met his need
through losing face, that (losing face) would be greater than
what he has obtained from your favor."
Hasan(a.s.), gave a poet some money. So one of those who were
sitting with him said to him: "Glory be to Allah! Do you give
the poet who disobeys the Merciful (Allah) and tells lies?" Imam
Hasan(a.s.), peace be on him, said: "Servant of Allah, the best
of your money is what you spend to protect your dignity. It is
an act of kindness to avoid the evil."
came to Imam Hasan(a.s.) and asked him for a need. So Imam
Hasan(a.s.) said: "Give him all the money in the safe." There
were twenty thousand dirhams in the safe. All the money was
given to the Bedouin, so he said: "My master, do you not let me
tell you about my need and praise you?" Imam Hasan(a.s.) began
saying: Our gifts are many, The hopeful enjoy them, Our selves
give generously before the request, For fear of losing face.
One day Imam
Hasan(a.s.) saw a black boy. The black boy was eating a piece of
bread and giving a piece of bread to his dog. So Imam Hasan(a.s.)
said to him: "What has made you do this?" "I feel shame of my
dog when I eat and do not feed him," answered the black boy.
Then Imam Hasan(a.s.) said to him: "Do not leave your place till
I come to you." At that moment Imam Hasan(a.s.) went to the
black boy's master. He bought the black boy and the wall (the
garden) where he lived. He freed the black boy and made him
possess the wall.
Hasan(a.s.) is the Lord of the youth of Heaven. He was one of
the two persons in whom the progeny of the Apostle of Allah, may
Allah bless him and his family, was limited. He was one of the
four persons through whom the Prophet(pbuh&hf) made the contest
of prayer with the Christians of Najran. He was one of the five
persons whom the Prophet(pbuh&hf) covered with his cloak. He was
one of the twelve Imams whose obedience Allah(swt) made
incumbent on people. He was among those who were purified from
sins as the Qur'an says. He was among those whose love
Allah(swt) made reward for the message. He was among those whom
the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf) made one of the two valuable
things (thaqalayn). Thus whoever cleaves to them does not go
astray. He was the plant of the sweet basil of the Apostle of
Allah(pbuh&hf). The Prophet(pbuh&hf) loved him and asked
Allah(swt) to love those who love him.
Hasan(a.s.)'s Succession to the Caliphate and his Abdication
Hasan(a.s.) was the testamentary trustee (wasi) of Imam
Ali(a.s.) over his family, his children and his followers. He
bequeathed him to look after his position and (the position of)
his taxes (sadaqat) and he wrote him a covenant (of succession)
which is well-known. His testamentary trusteeship is obvious in
terms of the outlines of religion, the essential characteristic
of wisdom and good-breeding. A great number of scholars have
reported this trusteeship and many of the men of understanding
have realised the truth of this through his (attitude to) the
Ali(a.s.) died, Imam Hasan(a.s.) addressed the people. He
reminded them of his right (to authority). The followers of his
father pledged allegiance to him in terms of fighting those he
fought and making peace with those with whom he made peace. He
assumed the succession in the best manner though the time of his
succession was short. Also he made a Peace Treaty with Mu'awiya
on the 15th of Jamadi al-Awwal in the year 41 A.H., according to
the most correct reports. So he was able to protect the religion
and to spare the blood of the believers. In the Peace Treaty, he
followed the teachings, which he reported on the authority of
his father on the authority of his grandfather, may Allah bless
him and his family. Apparently, his succession was seven months
and twenty days.
Peace Treaty had been concluded, Imam Hasan(a.s.) came back to
Medina to stay there. So his house became as a second haram (a
sacred sanctuary) for people to visit. Through these two sacred
places (Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s house and Medina), Imam Hasan(a.s.),
became the rise of guidance. He was the stronghold of knowledge
and shelter of Muslims. Meanwhile there were many knowledgeable
people all around him. Anyhow such knowledgeable people were the
students of Imam Hussain(a.s.). So they learned knowledge from
him and reported it on his authority. Allah(swt) granted Imam
Hasan(a.s.) plentiful knowledge and a high social position in
the hearts of Muslims. Thus he (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) was able to
guide the community, to lead Muslims spiritually, to correct the
Islamic beliefs, and to unify the people of monotheism.
Hasan(a.s.) was given poison several times. When Imam Hasan(a.s.)
felt the danger in the last attempt, he said to his brother Imam
Hussain(a.s.): "My brother, I am leaving you and meeting my
Lord. I have been given poison to drink, and have spewed my
liver into the basin. I am aware of the person who poisoned me
and from where I have been made a subject to this deceitful
action. I will oppose him before Allah, the Great and Almighty."
Then he said: "Bury me with my grand father, the Apostle of
Allah(pbuh&hf). For I am worthier of him and his family' (than
others). If they prevent you from doing so, then I make you
swear by the relation which Allah(swt) has made close to you and
by the blood relation to the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf) not to
shed even your blood into the cupping-glass in (carrying out) my
command, till we meet the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf) to oppose
the people before him and to tell him about what we have
suffered from them."
Hasan(a.s.) made his testamentary bequests to his family and his
children. He gave Imam Hussain(a.s.) his heirlooms and the
things which the Commander of the faithful (Imam Ali(a.s.)) had
bequeathed to him when he had made him his successor, had
declared him worthy to occupy his position, and had indicated to
his Shi'a (his followers) that he (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) was his
successor. Then Imam Hasan(a.s.) died on the 28th of Safar in
the year 50 A.H.
al-Isfahani said: "Mu'awiya wanted the people to pledge
allegiance to his son Yazid. However, the existence of Imam
Hasan(a.s.) b. 'Ali and of Sa'd b. Abu Waqqas troubled him very
much. So he gave them poison to drink, and they died of it."
abominable disasters of this kind shook the conscience of the
Muslim countries. So there were various revolutions throughout
history. In this connection Allah(swt), the Exalted, says: "And
they who act unjustly shall know to what final place of turning
they shall turn back."
Sibt b. al-Jawzi
reported on the authority of b. Sa'd on the authority of al-Waqidi,
who said: "When Imam Hasan(a.s.) was about to die, he said:
`Bury me beside my father.' He meant the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf).
However, banu (the sons of ) Umayya and Marwan b. al-Hakam and
Said b. al-As, who was the governor over Medina, prevented him."
Ibn Sa'd said: "Among them was `A'isha, who said: `No one is
buried beside the Apostle of Allah.'"
al-Amawi al-Isfahani reported on the authority of Yahya b. Imam
Hasan(a.s.), who said: "I heard Ali b. Tahir b. Zayd say: `When
they wanted to bury Imam Hasan(a.s.), she (`A'isha) mounted a
mule and asked the help of banu (the sons of) Umayya, Marwan,
those who were there from them (banu Umayya) and from their
servants. So someone said: `One day (she was) on a mule, and one
day (she was) on a camel.'"
has mentioned that `A'isha mounted a gray mule and led the
Umayyads to declare a second battle against the members of the
House (Ahl al-Bayt(a.s.)). He (al-Mas'udi) said: "So al-Qasim b.
Muhammad b. Abu Bakr came to her (`A'isha) and said: `Aunt, we,
have not washed our heads since the Battle of the Camel. Do you
want people to call this day the Battle of the Gray Mule?' So
she came back."
gathered together with Imam Hussain(a.s.) and said to him:
"Leave us with the children of Marwan. By Allah(swt), they are,
with us, nothing but an itching of the head." Imam Hussain(a.s.)
said: `By Allah(swt), if there had been no injunction to me from
Imam Hasan(a.s.) to prevent bloodshed and that I should not even
pour blood into a cupping-glass in (carrying out) his command,
you would have known how the swords of Allah(swt) would have
taken their toll from you. You have broken the agreement which
was made between you and us. You have ignored the conditions
which we made with you for ourselves." Here Imam Hussain(a.s.)
reminded them of the conditions of the Peace Treaty.
went on with (the body of) Imam Hasan(a.s.) and they buried him
in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi beside his grandmother, Fatima
bint-e-Asad(a.s.) bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf.
In his book
`al-Isaba', Ahmad Shahab al-Din al-`Asqalani said: Dawud b.
Sinan informed us: Tha'laba b. Abu Malik told us: "I (Tha'laba
b. Abu Malik) saw Imam Hasan(a.s.) on the day when he died and
was buried in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi`. I saw that if a needle
had been thrown away in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi`, it (the
needle) would have not fallen but on the head of a person."